ADVENT - NOVEMBER,
21 Eglinton Road, Dunedin, New Zealand
By the time this is distributed,
George Arthur, the usual editor, will be on his way to America and
England, or nearly. This issue WAS promised for All Saints (Western
date, November 1) and indeed work WAS begun on that day, but we have
held it up partly in order to include more material which keeps
arriving, and also because more time is available a little later. We
commend to the prayers of all our readers the discussions which George
and his wife Zelda will be having with the Western Rite Vicariate about
mission work here, and also (see article elsewhere) in England.
We have received "The
Protomartyr" parish magazine of St. Stephen's Western Orthodox parish,
South plainfield, N.J. U.S.A., to which we are indebted for the
Patriarchal portrait on the cover and the accompanying note. We also
reprint from the same paper the column below - taken from questions and
answers from the Vicar's considerable correspondence.
In the last issue we made
mention of the early history of St.Michael's parish, Dunedin.The best
account of this is in John Evans' "Southern See", a history of
the Anglican Diocese of Dunedin, which was closely associated with
St.Michael 's for many decades. We wrote to Fr Evans some time ago
seeking permission to print extracts from his book and also any other
material he may have. We hope to have a reply in time for a later
"DIVINE SERVICE" The ordinary
for Sunday Matins, Mass, and Vespers, is now available, price 70c. A
supplement giving the rest of Matins and Vespers for ferias in the
Roman use is also printed.
THE FIRST of the leaflets is available gratis, explaining the
Orthodox faith. Write to St.Peter Orthodox Truth Service, c/- (for the
present) 21 Eglinton Road, Dunedin.
(from "The Protomartyr")
..........The letters contained many questions regarding our
affiliation as a western-rite mission with the Antiochian Orthodox
Archdiocese, and came from clergy and laymen in either the Episcopal or
Anglican Catholic churches. Maybe they are the same questions you
have, and if so, here are our answers:
QUESTION: Are hymns permitted during the Mass in western rite
ANSWER: But of course! Hymns may be sung from either of the authorized
hymnals - "The Hymnal" (Episcopal) or "Hymns Ancient and Modern".
QUESTION: Must the sermon follow the recessional hymn on normal
ANSWER: . Not at all. The sermon is to be delivered after the Gospel,
if the "Turner Missal" is used (old Tridentine style), or after the
Creed if the Anglican style Liturgy is used. There is no
provision for it being delivered at the end of The Liturgy.
QUESTION: Are Stations of the Cross (all of them) permitted?
QUESTION: Is reservation of the Blessed Sacrament permitted?
ANSWER: Positively. As a matter of fact it is expected in all permanent
QUEST ION: Is the use of a confessional permitted for the sacrament of
ANSWER: If you like. Some of us prefer to hear confessions at the altar
rail, or in front of an icon of Christ as is done in most Orthodox
churches. We feel that it is important that our people make their
confessions in our parish in the same way they would if they were
attending any Orthodox church. In Orthodoxy, confessions do not follow
the same legalistic pattern as is followed by Roman Catholics or
QUESTION: would our stautues have to be replaced with icons? Would we
have to use icons at all?
ANSWER; No, You may keep your statues if you like, as long as they are
not of post-schism "saints" or of events depicting things not accepted
by Orthodoxy. (The "Immaculate Conception, for instance.)
QUESTION: Must blessed bread be distributed following Mass in a
ANSWER: No! if you don't want to. It is a very symbolic and useful
custom, however, and something which may be distributed to all present,
even if thcy are not orthodox. Sacraments, including Holy Communion,
may not be administered to non-orthodox. (This, of course, does not
include the initiatory sacraments of Baptism and Chrismation which
bring one into the Orthodox Church.)
QUESTION: How would the architectural setting of the church be
ANSWER: If your church is a traditional western catholic church, it
would not be affected at all. The Mass may not be said facing the
people, however, so if that is your practice and your church is set up
for it, you might have to make an architectural change.
QUESTION: Why did you choose the Antiochian Archdiocese rather
than one of the other jurisdictlons?
ANSWER: Because it is the best jurisdiction! In addition, it is the
only cannonical Orthodox jurisdiction which has a western rite and
actively supports and encourages it. There are many other reasons,
including the fact that Orthodox churches from the Middle East are less
influenced spiritually and pietistically by national or ethnic customs
since they were never the "Established Religion" in the country
of their original background. Many practices which non-Orthodox believe
to be of the essence in Orthodoxy, and which they find somewhat hard to
take, are actually nothing more than Russian ethnic
customs which have become important to those of Russian background and
appear to those outside as "part of the Faith". Such things are not as
obvious or paramount in the Orthodox from the Middle East.
QUESTION: Is it permissable for women to serve on the vestry or board
of trustees in an Orthodox parish?
ANSWER: But of course! We have four women on our vestry, and there are
at least two women on the Archdiocesan Board of Trustees. We hear that
some jurisdictions won't allow women to serve in that capacity, but we
like women! Women cou1d never even be considered for the priesthood or
other ministerial offices anywhere in Orthodoxy, however, for that
would be impossible for theological reasons.
QUESTION: Are western-rite parishes expected to "easternize" later on?
ANSWER: Positively not! As a matter of fact, they are not allowed to do
so. Thc western-rite parishes operate under the Western-Rite Vicariate
of our Archdiocese, and as such constitute a most important missionary
outreach for Orthodoxy. We would certainly not have many W-R
congregations if they were expected to "easternize".
OF INCARNATION CHURCH, DETROIT
Mr. Dale Griffith, (17253 Wormer, Detroit, Michigan 48219 USA) who
is a tireless enthusiast for the cause of the "Anglican Rite" Orthodox
who have been finding their home in the Westerm Rite Vicariate
of the Antiochian Church, and who hope to do ao, has sent us this
photo of his parish Church. Some photos of a High Mass there have
been promised too, but they will have to wait till the next issue
of' "SPOTLIGHT", since we have now filled all our eight pages.
"INCARNATION" uses a form of
the Mass and other offices very little changed from the American
Prayer Book. Its Vicar, Fr. Angwin, besides running a busy
parish, is active for the Vicariate, answering enquiries
and helping those seeking a home in Western Orthodoxy, and even finds
time to lend support as far away as New
Zealand. Anyone who would like to write to Mr. Griffith would find
him encouraging and glad to know of your interest.
We print below the first
(and we hear that there are to be others) of letters written to testify
that there is in New Zealand a need for Orthodoxy to be available not
only in its Eastern forms, but also in the Western European cultural
forms natural to the majority of the New Zealand population. This
letter was supplied in duplicate and the other copy sent through a
friend in America to the WR Vicariate:
LETTERS ABOUT WESTERN RITE - AS
"I write in due humility as a convert to the Orthodox Faith.
Many Christians may be able to manage with less help than I need but
the Church has given us certain aids to concentration and discipline;
icons, the Bible and the various Rites.
"The Church is divided by man made misunderstanding of what
constitutes the full faith. For over fifty years I worshipped in the
Western Church until I reached the point where I felt that it was no
longer in a position to defend the faith through the generations. Still
the beauty of the Western Rite remains for me with the validity of an
"The Church must, of course, abandon that which is proved to be
wrong. Nor does it seem necessary to perpetuate anything harsh and
ugly. However the Western Rite is a beautiful thing done to bring man
close to God. While it is not essential, it does seem unnecessary that
it should be lost. More and more people of the West are becoming
disillusioned with the rule and validity of their part of the Church.
More and more of us look to the East for the true traditional Faith,
for us the passage to Orthodoxy may be made smoother if we can (while
leaving behind our mistakes) keep with us the beauty and reverence of
the Western Rite. I do not, of course, mean this to be in place of
Eastern Rites but in addition".
SPOTLIGHT ON NEW ZEALAND TODAY
Norman, in the BBC Reith Lectures broadcast recently here, warned
against a very common perversion of Christianity which he called
be accused of the opposite fault, since
in two years we have not once attempted a christian comment on current
The Reith Lectures were welcomed by Metropolitan Anthony Bloom,
who surely spoke for the Orthodox consciousness generally. Far too
often, as the Lecturer said, the Christian Faith has been recently
reduced to a social or political message, and that message has been
drawn, supposedly from the gospel, but actually far too often has been
taken over from political circles - from the "right" during the
post-war years, but recently more from the "left".
So far has this gone that an
independent, purely CHRISTIAN, and,
for us, ORTHODOX CHRISTIAN critique of the current scene may turn out
rather clumsily, and for this we make excuse in advance: there has been
so little practice; so few have attempted it. Christians with a social
conscience have tended lately to go along even with the brutalities of
bolshevism and excuse them as necessary to a "cause" which is the side
with which they feel more sympathy ;christians with a more spiritually
orientated faith have tended to desert the scene of social justice
The polarisation of opinion into "right" and "left" seems to us one of
the main obstacles to clear, independently CHRISTIAN thought about the
sort of society and world that ought to be aimed at, and so we should
like to look at some of the supposed marks of this polarisation in the
light of the practice of christian states, and particularly of the
Orthodox States in Byzantium (Constantinople) and in Holy Russia, in
which we think some surprises are to be found.
One matter that has recently become
controversial, after a time
in which it seemed to have become a matter of agreement among all
reasonable people, is that of the "WELFARE STATE". The following
extract from a French book on St Sergius we have translated as we think
it most remarkable and sheds a new light:
Prince Vladimir, accompanied by
Princess Anna, returned in triumph to
Kiev (990) and worked at organising a Christian state. .
. . . . .Christianity very quickly infused the life and mentality of
the people.The Prince set the example. Never had a conversion been more
complete or richer in consequences. The contemporaries of St. Vladimir
are unamimous in asserting that the character aad way of life of the
Prince underwent a radieal change. He showed himself as gentle and
humane as he had been cruel and vicious.
Under his leadership the Emire of Kiev, from the end of the Xth
Century, was the scene of a social experiment unique of its kind, which
was taken up in Europe only later. All the poor and all the elderly
became the object of an organised social assistance. Food was
to them, and essential supplies. Drivers went through the streets of
with instrutions to seek out the sick and the weak, unable to attend at
the Palace to collect their aid, which was a charge on the Prince's
exchequer.This security for the aged was not confined to the town of
Kiev, but was a State institution.
The Great Prince
consulted the Bishops on the affairs of
state, reorganised justice and abolished the death penalty. His
was legendary, his personal life imprinted with the greatest piety. He
formed with his last wife, Anna of Byzantium, and his two youngest
sons, Boris and Gleb, a profoundly christian family.
The influece of St.
Vladimir was toe extend over several
generations. His grand-daughter Anne, married to King Henry I of
was to continue at Senlis her grandfather's tradition.
After the King's death (4th August, l060) she became Regent of the
of France. Anna fixed her residence at Senlis where she founded the
convent of St. Vincent and set up a distribution to the poor of the
town. This custom lasted until the French Revolution. Pope Nicholas II
to address to the Queen a letter in which he exalted her Christian
The Russian people
accepted the message of the
Gospel and applied the commandments of Christ with an extreme
The commandments of
Christ had te be carried out and His life must be taken as an
From the above
it is very clear that, if the modern Russian state has a
welfare system, it can not be credited as an innovation of
the Communists, nor should their brutalities, exceeding those of
the Turks and of the pagan Romans, be used to discredit the notion of
State responsibility for the relief of poverty,
and, indeed, measures taken to ensure that no citizen need fall
into poverty. Indeed, State responsibility for welfare did not begin
even with St. Vladimir. Histories of the Byzantine State record
its participation in poor relief, its employment of a Quaestor to
employ the destitute and avoid unemployment, the maintenance of a large
number of state employees at the expense of the large
and increasing estates of the Empire. The Byzantine Empire was
remarkable also for the high proportion of public
ownership, state control of commerce, and high level of
ta:xation (mostly indirect) exceeding even the levels of
twentieth-century states. Nevertheless, all visitors
who reported on the Byzantine Empire remarked on its dazzling,
When we consider
another "sacred cow" of modern thought, usually called "DEMOCRACY", we
have to admit that, taking a long view, the vast majority of christian
states of whatever persuasion have really set very little store by it.
AUTOCRACY has enjoyed favour in christian and non-christian states for
most of the time in most places - "the imperial power is an autocracy
tempered by the legal right of revolution" (Mommsen, quoted in
"Byzantium " - Oxford - ). We can hardly fail to prefer a system of
elections which allows peaceful transition of power in place of the
risky and bloody revolutions which prevail under all autocracies, but
it would be dishonest to pretend that christian govermmant has not
normally been MONARCHY, with its biblical origin, and that
monarchy has not usually meant something much more autocratic
than the very limited powers left to our Monarchy.
Finally, we suggest that all the above "criteria", which the
modern political world proposes to us by which to judge policies and
régimes, are not worth nearly so much to us as the clear ideals
of the Gospel. The régimes which figure so frequently in the
grisly reports of AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL are to be blamed not so much
for their "autocracy" or lack of elections as for simple cruelty going
far beyond what even the shakiest state security could justify.
When people are put out of work or pressed into poverty by systems, or
lose their homes and are left destitute, the wrong cries to heaven and
to the christian conscience, whatever political rhetoric may be
employed to justify it.
One thing which nowadays robs many people and is causing much worry but
seems to defeat most western politicians is inflation, and it has been
observed that it marches very much in step with rates of interest, or,
as the Bible calls it, USURY. A radical criticism of lending at
interest, and proposals for eliminating it and its evil effects, are
the characteristic of a political group in our country which so far the
larger parties refuse to take seriously. In view of the condemnation of
usury in ancient Israel, in the christian west for many centuries, its
successful elimination not only in communist countries but also some
moslem states, and its strict control in the Orthodox state in
Constantinople, we think the christian conscience ought to be rather
more sensitive to what so many authorities have condemned as nothing
better than a form of gambling. And any group which makes suggestions
as to a means of moving steadily, but without unjust expropriation,
towards its elimination, deserves a hearing by any who aim at a more
One last point: While we ought to aim at a more just organisation of
our world, there are many wrongs which will never be righted by such
means. If we see anyone in need anywhere, it is no alibi to say that we
are agitating for a world in which that should not happen. Even in a
utopian society the obligation to those in need remains a personal
one. Personal charity is not a complete solution to problems of a
national or global nature; but it remains a burden on the conscience of
any who calls
himself a christian.
NUMBERS FOR RECORDS:
We have managed somehow to mislay a package of SPOTLIGHT
material including the only remaining copies of certain back numbers.
We should be most grateful if anyone has an unwanted copy of the
published (about) February, 1978, and May, 1979 (the last but one)
they would be willing to let us have for our files.
The chief Orthodox Churches in North America are: the Greek
Archdiocese (1, 875,000) with the Carpatho-Ruthenian Church also
under the Ecumenical Patriarchate (104,000) the OCA (Russian
Metropolia) (800,000) 2 Ukrainian groups of 100,000+100,000; the
Serbian Church (150,000) and the Antiochian Archdiocese (110,000).
NATIONAL CHURCHES IN NEW ZEALAND:
Church of St. Mary in Wellington.
The Roumanian Church arriyed
very recently in New Zealand, with the coming, about 1975, of Father George
Speranta. He stands in the picture
here to the right
(our left) of the (Serbian) Bishop Basil.
The beautiful iconostasion has only just been finished, and this Church
was acquired little more than a year ago.
Before that, services were held in St. Sava's (Serbian)
Church and in a former Presbyterian building.
CATHOLIC YEARBOOK 1979"
This has reached us recently, and contains much recent information
not only about this Church which has had a close relationahip with
Orthodoxy for a century, but also in its statistical section has a
great deal of useful information about the state of Orthodox and other
Eastern Churches as well as about the Old Catholic and Anglican
Churches. The Old Catholics found themselves excommunicated by Rome
after the decree of 1870 concerning Papal infallibility. Immediately
they opened approaches to Anglican and Orthodox Churches about unity
based on the faith of the Undivided Church of the first 1000 years,
and received a response which led to union with the Anglicans in 1930,
and to discussions with Orthodox. The matter of women priests was
expected to put some atrain on the Old Catholics; they report the
matter as being still under discussion. A pastoral cooperation
agreement with the Roman Catbolics has been drawn up but not yet
confirmed, while a high-level unity dialogue, intended to lead, they
say, to full communion with Orthodox, is under way. The general
impression from this yearbook, to Fr Jack who studied with them in
1960, is that they feel they are leading ahead of Vatican II; not the
best prospect for deeper relations with Orthodoxy.
"Old Catholic Churches exist at present in 20 countries with
nearly 3 million faithful, 50 Dioceses, over 2000 parishes, 75 Bishops
and more than 1000 priests."
"The Anglican Communion embraces at present 26 Churches...with
altogether 390 Dioceses and about 65,000 parishes ...over 65 million
faithful, 550 serving...Bishops and over 40,006 serving priests.
"The Orthodox Communion embraces at present 14 autocephalous, 7
autonomous ....Churches...with altogether over 100 million faithful 350
Dioceses and 35,700 parishes, over 400 Bishops and more than 33,000
Ecumenical Patriarchate: including overseas jurisdictions 3.5
The main part of the 100 million are in the Moscow Patriarchate (55
million) Roumania (15 million) Bulgaria (6 million) Serbia (8 million)
and Greece (7 million).
The 'Oriental' Churches (Monophysite) also account for over 25 million
more Eastern Christians, of which the largest are Ethiopia (12 million)
Egypt and Sudan (6 million) and Armenia (5 million). Nestorians however
only number 200,000.
The Russian Orthodox Church Abroad, with its headquarters in
New York, has no separate American figure, but its world total is
200,000, and of its 16 Dioceses, 6 are in the USA, 1 in Canada, 3
in South America, 1 in Auatralia, and 5 in Europe.
Of the other Churches present in New Zealand, the Serbian Diocese
of Australia and NZ numbers 100,000 in 13 parishes, the
Greek Diocese of Australia (Archdiocese and
exarchate) 150,000, the Greek Metropolia of NZ and exarchate of India,
numbers 15,000 in 18 parishes; the Rumanian is not yet listed, and of
the Wellington Ukrainian community it
is not clear to which jurisdiction it belongs.
The following facts about
the Patriarchate of Antioch and its jurisdiction are probably
worth quoting in full:
"Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch. 565,000 members, 20
Dioceses, 24 Bishops, 520 parishes, 450 priests in the near East and
Near East: 340,000 members in 14
Dioceses of whom 180,000 in 6 Dioceses in Syria, 130,000 in 6 Dioceses
the Lebanon, 25,000 in 1 Diocese in Iraq and Iran, the rest in 1
Diocese in Turkey.
In America and Australia: 225,000 members in 6
Head: His Holiness Ignatius IV, Patriarch of Antioch the Great and
all the East, B.P.9,Damascus, Syria.
Church magazines: "An-Nachra"(Patriarchal journal, Arabic) B.P.9, SYR
Damascus. "Al-Kalima"(Organ of the American Archdiocese, in
358 Mountain Road, USA Englewood NJ 07631.
Theo1ogical Academy of Balamand: Institut Theologique de Balamande,
Fih, Koura, Lebanon.
Antiochian Orthodox Church in America and Australia Archdiocese of New
York and all North America. 110,000 members, 3 Bishops, 104 parishes,
priests. Exarch: Most Rev. Philip (Saliba) Archbishop of New
York and all North America, 358 Mountain Rd., Englewood NJ 07631
Metropolia of Argentina: Exarch: Metr. Meletius of Buenos
Aires, Canning 1261, Buenos Aires Argentina. 15 parishes, 15 priests.
Metropolia of Brazil: Exarch : Metr. Ignatius of
Sao Paolo, Appeninos 902, Sao Paolo, Brazil.
Mexico: Exarch: Bishop Antonius of Caesarea, Dr.Barragan No. 568,
Australia: Exarch: Bishop Gabriel of
Australia / (Gibran) / SMB Box M 86, Sydney NSW, Australia.
NATIONAL CHURCHES IN NEW ZEALAND:
For more than a generation of christian students, Fr. Alexei
Godyaew (pictured here, now mitred as Very Revd.
Protopriest) was their first, unforgettable introduction to
Orthodoxy. Fr. Jack remembers, as others of his generation
will, services in a glasshouse in Opawa,
Christchurch, which was completely transformed into a
Church, complete with icons and all furnishings.
The Russian Orthodox Church Abread
(outside of Russia)
Below we see a view of his chapel
A friend in Wellington has
supplied the following details of the life of one who
surely deserves the title of the Grand Old Man of New Zealand
Ordained Deacon 1932, served as Deacon in Milan,
Yugoslavia and as Archdeacon in Vienna. Ordained to the
Arrived in N.Z. 1.9.50, cared for the Russian
emigrés at the transit camp in Pahiatua, and set about
organising Church groups in N.Z. The first was in Wellington, then
Auckland, Christchurch, Dunedin. His family joined him in Newtown in
1951 and they lived at 17 Lawrence Street.
At this time he was
1st Sunday Auckland,
2nd Sunday Wellington, 3rd Sunday
Christchurch, 4th Sunday Dunedin, 5th Sunday
He also worked as a biochemist for the dairy Board. He retired in
1965 and went to Longburn as a biochemist for the new milk
plant built there. Then he retired from
there and want to live in Waikanae at 38 Park Ave. where he
still lives now. His activity as a priest is less now because of age
and health, but he endeavours to serve Auckland and Wellington once a month
and Christchurch at least twice a year. He has spent
29 years of his priesthood in N.Z.
He has been Archpriest for many years,and has had the
dignity of the mitre for at least five years. He
has been a naturalised New Zealand citizen fir
His dearest wish is to be able to leave
the work on which he has spent so much effort in
the hands of a younger priest who can continue to look after his
MNOGO LIETOM - EIS
POLLA ETI - AD MULTOS ANNOS - MANY YEARS!